|Botanical Name||Urtica dioica L.|
|English name||Stinging nettle, Common nettle|
|Parts Used||Whole herb|
|Habitat and altitude||
Found in most countries including Tibet at 4500 m altitude and lower area near animal shelters, roadsides, forests, canyons and among grasses. Distributed in central and eastern Nepal at 500-4500 m (Mid Hills-Himalayan), in moist areas and on uncultivated land.
Anti-inflammatory activity- acts as COX1 and COX2 inhibitor and Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D2 synthase inhibitor. Anti-microbial activity - shows antiviral action against HIV, cytomegalovirus; has some antibacterial activity as well. Anti-allergic activity - decrease allergic symptoms, such as nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis; acts as histamine antagonist and inhibit mast cell tryptase. Immunomodulatory effect Antioxidant activity - shows hepatoprotective effect, as well as an anti-apoptotic action in brain cells; decreases ROS; increases antioxidant enzyme activity; prevents lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress; shows to increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.
Effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia- appears to increase urinary volume and urinary flow rate and reduce the size of prostate; decreases frequency of micturition and post-void residual volume; shows improvement in obstructive and irritative symptoms; decreases symptoms of nighttime urination, too frequent urination, painful urination, inability to urinate and irritable bladder Genitourinary system effect - reduces inflammation of lower urinary tract; may be used for prevention and subsidiary treatment of kidney gravel Cardiovascular effect- exhibits hypotensive effect; acts as diuretic and natriuretic; inhibit thrombin-induced platelet aggregation; decreases heart rate; has protective antioxidant action and improve lipid profiles Hypotensive effect - shows to produce hypotensive responses through a vasorelaxing effect mediated by the release of endothelial NO, opening of potassium channels, blocking calcium channels and negative inotropic action.
Anti-arthritic activity- down-regulates inflammation cascade; has anti-inflammatory effect; reduces primary T-cell responses; has analgesic activity; has inhibitory effect on NF-kappa B activation which is elevated in chronic inflammatory diseases and is responsible for enhanced expression of many pro-inflammatory gene products Analgesic and anti-nociceptive properties
Hepatoprotective effect- protect liver from free radical damage. Gastroprotective effect - protects stomach mucous membrane; has anti-ulcer activity. Hypolipidemic effect - reduces serum LDL and cholesterol; shows to decrease HMG-CoA reductase activity, resulting in lower plasma LDL levels. Anti-diabetic effect - increases glucose uptake into cells and reduces intestinal absorption of glucose; causes mild decrease in serum glucose levels; exhibit ability to increase insulin secretion by Langerhans island; shows protective effect against Diabetic nephropathy via reducing oxidative stress and blood glucose. Anti-dementia property - shows to improve learning and memory function; through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions suggested to be an anti-aging and neuroprotective agent and may prevent Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases progression. Anti-hypoxic activity - shows to increase cerebral blood blow and possess anti-hypoxic activity due to its antioxidant action.
Rejuvenation action:Warms the kidneys Clears dampness and cold Balances blood pressure Strengthens the lungs Balances endocrine system Improves tone and elasticity of veins and capillaries Balances blood sugar levels Nourishes the body and restores physical strength
Gastrointestinal system:Restores digestive heat Decreases stomach acidity Relieves meteorism and abdominal distension Stops diarrhoea Alleviate haemorrhoids and helps to shrink inflamed tissues
Genitourinary system:Promotes urination Promotes destruction and elimination of kidney and bladder stones Clears urinary tract infection Relieves water retention Neutralizes and prevent the crystallization of uric acid Relieves prostatitis Relieves symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia Prevents premenstrual bloating Promotes menstrual flow, but prevents excessive menstruation Promotes easy delivery, easing pain and preventing haemorrhages Increases milk production in nursing mothers Reduces PMS symptoms Clears vaginal yeast infections
Immune system and detoxification:Relieves lymphatic congestion and oedema Purifies lymph Treats gout, arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis Relieves pain in the muscles and joints of the lower back Helpful in easing neuralgia, sprains, tendonitis and sciatica Relieves leg cramps Relieves spasms Relieves lung congestion Clears phlegm and stops wheezing and asthma attacks Relieves allergy and hay fever symptoms, including sneezing and itching Relieves shortness of breath Relieves rashes and eczema Purifies blood Protects and purifies the liver Treats splenomegaly Promotes wound healing Helps to remove metabolic wastes Stops bleeding of lungs, stomach, nose, kidney, uterine and bowel bleeding Treats anemia Promotes blood and lymph circulation
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