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White Sandalwood / Santalum album / Tsenden karpo
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Latin. Commiphora mukul

Tibet. Gugul


Botanical Name Commiphora mukul
English name Myrrh
Tibetan Name Gugul
Parts Used Resin
Altitude and habitat

Found in hot, low altitude regions of China, Nepal, India and other countries.

Pharmacological properties

Analgesic activity - shows to relieve headache, muscle aches, joint pain, lower back pain, fever-dependent pain and menstrual cramps
Antipyretic activity
Anti-inflammatory activity - shows to reduce development of inflammation in arthritis; reduces oedema; shows to reduce ear inflammation; reduces formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Anti-acne activity - show to be effective in treatment of nodulocystic acne.
Anti-bacterial activity - against Salmonella spp., K.pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E.coli.
Anti-fungal activity - against Candida albicans.
Anti-parasitic effect - effective against Schistosoma species, reduces granulomas and fibrosis; Trichomonas vaginalis.
Wound healing activity - improves migration and proliferation of fibroblast cells and regulates their gene expression, which is essential during wound closure; exhibits anti-inflammatory effect.

Anticoagulant activity - inhibits platelet aggregation induced by ADP, adrenaline or serotonin; has anti-thrombotic and fibrinolytic activity.
Anti-hyperglycaemic activity - significantly reduces blood glucose levels.
Anti-hyperlipidemic activity - lowers serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL; significantly decreases body weight and BMI; protects against development of atherosclerosis.
Cardioprotective effect - shows to have therapeutic value in management of myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease and thromboembolism.

Hepatoprotective effect - shows to attenuate ammonia-induced liver injury, oxidative stress, inflammation and haematological alterations; protects liver against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity; decreases circulating levels of ALT and AST.
Anti-hyperammonemia effect - decreases circulating ammonia, liver function markers, TNF-alpha; suppresses lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide, and enhances antioxidant defences in liver, kidney and cerebrum; shows to prevent development of hepatic encephalopathy.
Thyroid stimulatory activity - shows to enhance T3 concentration and T3/T4 ratio; increases uptake of iodine by thyroid; increases enzymes involved in synthesis of thyroid hormones and tissue oxygen uptake.
Anti-arthritic activity - shows to reduce development of inflammation and soreness of joints in arthritis.
Gastrointestinal effects - shows to have stimulating action on smooth muscle tissue and stimulates peristalsis; protects against development of GI ulcers by increasing gastric mucus secretion; exerts anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells, significantly reduces severity of colitis and thus is useful in management of inflammatory bowel disease.

Antioxidant activity - prevents lipid peroxidation; have free radical scavenging property; enhances antioxidant defences and abrogates oxidative stress; helps to stop oxidation of cholesterol and subsequent hardening of arteries, reduces stickiness of platelet and thus lower risk of coronary artery diseases.
Neuroprotective effect - protects neurons from damage due to ammonia through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation; shows to improve memory and cognitive functions.
Anti-depressant-like effect - reverses impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis due to chronic stress; elicits anxiolytic-like activity.
Anti-cancer activity - shows to possess cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential; induces efficient apoptotic cell death in variety of cancer cells; shows to increase cancer tissue sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.

Ethnomedicinal uses

Rejuvenation action:
Balances Wind disorders
Balances blood sugar levels
Reduces body fat
Boosts immune system

Gastrointestinal system:
Relieves indigestion
Relieves haemorrhoids
Clears parasites
Relieves constipation

Genitourinary system:
Destroys and clears urinary bladder stones
Increases urinary output
Stimulates menstrual flow
Relieves menstrual cramps
Treats menopausal symptoms
Clears vaginal infections

Immune system and detoxification:
Relieves shortness of breath and cough
Treats epidemic diseases and infections
Expels phlegm from respiratory system
Treats ear infections, sinusitis, gingivitis, sore throat
Purifies blood and lymph
Purifies liver and treats jaundice
Heals canker sores
Has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects
Lowers fever
Treats acne, eczema, psoriasis
Destroys neoplasms
Purifies glands and relieves lymphadenitis
Heals wounds and fractured bones
Relieves joint pain, swelling and inflammation
Treats gout, rheumatism and arthritis
Has analgesic effect
Acts as antidote to poisoning
Relieves facial paralysis and sciatica
Clears coronary thrombosis
Promotes blood circulation and clears stasis
Relieves headache

Used in our products