|Botanical Name||Commiphora mukul|
|Altitude and habitat||
Found in hot, low altitude regions of China, Nepal, India and other countries.
Analgesic activity- shows to relieve headache, muscle aches, joint pain, lower back pain, fever-dependent pain and menstrual cramps Antipyretic activity Anti-inflammatory activity - shows to reduce development of inflammation in arthritis; reduces oedema; shows to reduce ear inflammation; reduces formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-acne activity - show to be effective in treatment of nodulocystic acne. Anti-bacterial activity - against Salmonella spp., K.pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E.coli. Anti-fungal activity - against Candida albicans. Anti-parasitic effect - effective against Schistosoma species, reduces granulomas and fibrosis; Trichomonas vaginalis. Wound healing activity - improves migration and proliferation of fibroblast cells and regulates their gene expression, which is essential during wound closure; exhibits anti-inflammatory effect.
Anticoagulant activity- inhibits platelet aggregation induced by ADP, adrenaline or serotonin; has anti-thrombotic and fibrinolytic activity. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity - significantly reduces blood glucose levels. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity - lowers serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL; significantly decreases body weight and BMI; protects against development of atherosclerosis. Cardioprotective effect - shows to have therapeutic value in management of myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease and thromboembolism.
Hepatoprotective effect- shows to attenuate ammonia-induced liver injury, oxidative stress, inflammation and haematological alterations; protects liver against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity; decreases circulating levels of ALT and AST. Anti-hyperammonemia effect - decreases circulating ammonia, liver function markers, TNF-alpha; suppresses lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide, and enhances antioxidant defences in liver, kidney and cerebrum; shows to prevent development of hepatic encephalopathy. Thyroid stimulatory activity - shows to enhance T3 concentration and T3/T4 ratio; increases uptake of iodine by thyroid; increases enzymes involved in synthesis of thyroid hormones and tissue oxygen uptake. Anti-arthritic activity - shows to reduce development of inflammation and soreness of joints in arthritis. Gastrointestinal effects - shows to have stimulating action on smooth muscle tissue and stimulates peristalsis; protects against development of GI ulcers by increasing gastric mucus secretion; exerts anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells, significantly reduces severity of colitis and thus is useful in management of inflammatory bowel disease.
Antioxidant activity- prevents lipid peroxidation; have free radical scavenging property; enhances antioxidant defences and abrogates oxidative stress; helps to stop oxidation of cholesterol and subsequent hardening of arteries, reduces stickiness of platelet and thus lower risk of coronary artery diseases. Neuroprotective effect - protects neurons from damage due to ammonia through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation; shows to improve memory and cognitive functions. Anti-depressant-like effect - reverses impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis due to chronic stress; elicits anxiolytic-like activity. Anti-cancer activity - shows to possess cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential; induces efficient apoptotic cell death in variety of cancer cells; shows to increase cancer tissue sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Rejuvenation action:Balances Wind disorders Balances blood sugar levels Reduces body fat Boosts immune system
Gastrointestinal system:Relieves indigestion Relieves haemorrhoids Clears parasites Relieves constipation
Genitourinary system:Destroys and clears urinary bladder stones Increases urinary output Stimulates menstrual flow Relieves menstrual cramps Treats menopausal symptoms Clears vaginal infections
Immune system and detoxification:Relieves shortness of breath and cough Treats epidemic diseases and infections Expels phlegm from respiratory system Treats ear infections, sinusitis, gingivitis, sore throat Purifies blood and lymph Purifies liver and treats jaundice Heals canker sores Has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects Lowers fever Treats acne, eczema, psoriasis Destroys neoplasms Purifies glands and relieves lymphadenitis Heals wounds and fractured bones Relieves joint pain, swelling and inflammation Treats gout, rheumatism and arthritis Has analgesic effect Acts as antidote to poisoning Relieves facial paralysis and sciatica Clears coronary thrombosis Promotes blood circulation and clears stasis Relieves headache
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