|Botanical Name||Allium sativum|
|Parts Used||Root. Leaves and stems also have medicinal value.|
It is cultivated in any region with moderate climatic condition. Found all over the world in fields and vegetable gardens.
Antibacterial activity- against Staphylococcus spp., Shigella spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, E.coli, Proteus spp., Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, H.pylori. Anti-fungal activity - against Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Aspergillus spp.. Anti-parasitic activity - against roundworm, hookworm. Anti-inflammatory activity - due to anti-prostaglandin effect . Immunomodulatory activity - shows to improve host immunity. Anti-arthritis/osteoporosis activity - shows to reduce inflammation and oedema; attenuates bone loss and improves tensile strength; increases calcium absorption in intestine and reduces urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion due to increased estrogen signaling.
Anti-spasmodic activity- relaxes smooth muscles of intestine and stomach, aorta and trachea. Carminative effect - relieves flatulence, epigastric and abdominal distress, belching, colic, nausea; relaxes spasms, retards hyperperistalsis and disperses gases. Gastrointestinal effect - shows to be useful in management of hypermotile intestinal disorders; inhibits H.pylori; stops diarrhoea; produces carminative effect.
Hepatoprotective effect- inhibits lipid peroxidation in liver, thus prevents aging of liver cells; protects liver from alcohol damage. Renoprotective effect - reduces expression of proteins that causes renal damage; protects of oxidative stress; reduces abnormal urination. Effect on Benign prostatic hyperplasia - shows to decrease associated symptoms and prostatic size; reduces inflammation of prostate.
Cardioprotective effect- protects heart against myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular disorders. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity - reduces total cholesterol and plasma lipids; inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis; used for prevention of atherosclerosis and pathological vascular changes; increases HDL cholesterol. Anti-hypertensive activity - used for treatment of mild hypertension; causes smooth muscle relaxation; increases production of nitric oxide. Anti-atherosclerotic activity - improves lipid profile; relaxes smooth muscles; increases serum fibrinolytic activity; inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion (induced by collagen, ADP, arachidonic acid, epinephrine and thrombin); decreases plasma viscosity, haematocrit level and tissue plasminogen activity; shows anti-thrombotic effect and prevents formation of clot; reduces arterial stiffness. Hypoglycaemic effect - mildly lowers blood glucose levels and increases insulin activity; protects insulin against inactivation; improves liver glycogen storage.
Antioxidant activity- scavenges free radicals; inhibits lipid peroxidation; protects from oxidative damage and neutrophil infiltration; protects body from the damage associated with heavy metals; shows to reduce genotoxicity (DNA damage). Anti-neoplastic activity - shows to decrease odds of laryngeal, gastric, colorectal and endometrial cancers, as well as adenomatous colorectal polyps. Neuroprotective effect - shows to decrease levels of MAO; increases neurogenesis; improves memory and cognition; have anti-depressant-like effect; shows to suppress amyloidogenesis and induces amyloid protein degradation, as well as protects cells from its toxic effect. Metabolic effect - shows to increase thermogenesis (heat production); suppresses lipogenesis (cellular fat accumulation) and reduces proliferation of fat cells; increases adiponectin concentration in serum; improves tissue oxygenation during exercise; reduces sensation of fatigue; improves exercise tolerance. Hormonal effect - shows to increase and preserve estrogen; reduces circulation corticosterone; reduces excessive circulating thyroid hormone.
Rejuvenation action:Balances Wind disorders Strengthens the body Relieves insomnia Increases libido and potency Restores body heat
Gastrointestinal system:Restores digestive heat Relieves indigestion Improves appetite Relieves meteorism and abdominal distension Clears parasites Relieves haemorrhoids Treats gastroenteritis and dysentery Relieves colics and spasms
Cardiovascular system:Supports heart Improves blood circulation Treats hypertension Clears arteriosclerosis
Immune system and detoxification:Lowers fever Purifies toxins and neutralises poisons Clears skin infections Relieves inflammations and infections Treats respiratory tract infections and epidemic diseases Relieves shortness of breath Relieves swellings Relieves arthritis, rheumatism, sciatica
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