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April 28, 2017
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April 27, 2017


Lat. Boswellia serrata Roxb.

Tibet. Pokar


Botanical Name Boswellia serrata Roxb.
English name Frankincense
Tibetan Name Pokar
Parts Used Resin

Boswellia serrata Roxb. is a species characteristic of the tropical dry deciduous forests and occurs in very dry teak forests or in dry mixed deciduous forests. It is characteristically found on the slopes and ridges of hills, as well as on flat terrain, attaining a larger size on fertile soils. It is resistant to drought and resists fire better than other species in its zone of occurrence. The tree is also frost hardy and serves as a nurse tree for other species.

Pharmacological properties

Anti-bacterial activity -against P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella spp.
Anti-fungal activity - against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis.

Antioxidant activity - protects against oxidative stress, possesses ability to scavenge free radicals. Also, shows antioxidant activity in cerebrovascular system, thus provide enhancing effect on memory and learning.
Memory and cognitive function enhancing activity - provides positive action though its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities, as well as its direct effect on improvement of cognitive functions, thus shows therapeutic value for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. It also shows to increase neurone outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neutrons, thus provide neuro-anatomical basis for memory improvement.
Nerve-regeneration effect - studies suggest that it promotes peripheral nerve regeneration.

Analgesic action- shows to relieve inflammatory and neuropathic pain; increases pain threshold and tolerance.
Anti-inflammatory effect - provides anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis, sinusitis, asthma, atherosclerosis, and chronic plaque induced gingivitis.
Immunomodulatory activity - shows to be effective in lowering inflammatory response in autoimmune reactions.
Anticancer activity - shows anti-proliferative effect of cytotoxic and cytostatic agents; inhibits cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma; has inhibitory effect on the growth of prostate cancer cells; has anti-tumor and anti-edema action on brain tumors.

Anti-arthritic activity - shifts the balance of cytokines towards bone-protecting pattern.
Osteoarthritis action - provides anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity; shows to suppress RANKL-induced osteclastogenesis.
Cartilage protective actions - shows to halt cartilage degradation.
Anti-allergic activity - prevents formation of anaphylatoxins during severe acute allergic reactions.

Anti-asthmatic effect - improves symptoms of bronchial asthma, such as dyspnea, rhonchi and decreases number of attacks.
Effect on skin - shows to reduce redness and irritation in skin and produces an even skin tone; has soothing effect on irritated skin.
Gastrointestinal system effect - provides the relief of Irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, such as abdominal pain, altered bowel movements, meteors and cramps and preserves intestinal epithelial barrier from oxidative and inflammatory damage.
Anti-diabetic activity - increases blood HDL levels, decreases cholesterol and LDL.
Intensive exercise damage protection - shows to have positive effect on glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation in chronically exercising athletes. It reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and glycation.
Fertility effect - increases sperm motility; acts on pituitary gland and increases the main hormones of spermatogenesis; protects from oxidative stress.

Ethnomedicinal uses

Rejuvenation action:
Balances Wind disorders
Strengthens the body

Musculoskeletal system:
Relieves arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis
Relieves inflammation
Protects cartilage from degeneration
Reduce knee pain, inflammation and increase functionality
Relieves joint pain, bursitis and tendonitis

Gastrointestinal system:
Relieves abdominal pain
Pacifies ulcerative colitis
Pacifies inflammatory bowel disease
Stops diarrhea

Immune system and detoxification:
Purifies lymph, lymph nodes and blood
Improves blood and lymph circulation
Relieves asthma
Relieves sore throat
Clears skin and reduces dermal inflammations
Heals ulcers and wounds
Relieves headache
Has anti-inflammatory and analgesic action
Relieves painful menstruation
Stimulate urine and menstrual flow
Relieves testicular swelling

Used in our products


Boswellia is mentioned as a pain remedy in ancient Sanskrit texts dating back thousands of years. The herb is recommended in treating rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, joint pain, skeletal muscle pain and back pain.


A Combined Water Extract of Frankincense and Myrrh Alleviates Neuropathic Pain in Mice via Modulation of TRPV1

Supplementation with a lecithin-based delivery form of Boswellia serrata extract (Casperome®) controls symptoms of mild irritable bowel syndrome.

Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee – A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial

Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts

Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders

Curcumin and Boswellia serrata Modulate the Glyco-Oxidative Status and Lipo-Oxidation in Master Athletes

Combined Administration of Melissa officinalis and Boswellia serrata Extracts in an Animal Model of Memory

Therapeutic effect of frankincense in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

Beneficial effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on spatial learning and the dendritic tree of dentate gyrus granule cells in aged rats

Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

Frankincense–therapeutic properties.

Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage.

A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model

Caspase Mediated Synergistic Effect of Boswellia serrata Extract in Combination with Doxorubicin against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Frankincense (?? R? Xi?ng; Boswellia Species): From the Selection of Traditional Applications to the Novel Phytotherapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Serious Diseases

The effect of Frankincense in the treatment of moderate plaque-induced gingivitis: a double blinded randomized clinical trial